Italian is a romantic language and a complete language in that it has been refined over the last 2 thousand years from its predecessor , Latin, and is not easily prone to change. German and French are the same. English is a developing language and is both changing and complex. So in learning Italian one has to simplify many English expressions into one. English has mixed in Gaelic, Latin and German/Dutch components from various occupations, both military and religious and is still able to accommodate new words from it’s Commonwealth and colonial times.
The theme today is to help understand the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs which is important for the use of verbs in the past tense.
Also to throw a light on how languages are made up and insight into the words used.
This came about as I was trying to describe a trip overseas on an aeroplane.
I went abroad on an aeroplane. I flew in the sky.
Sono andato all éstero su un aero. Ho voluto nel cielo.
The plane took off and landed several times.
L’aero e decollato ed e atterrato più volte?
The plane did a loop the loop and made a bank to the left.
L’aero ha fatto il giro dell’anello e ha fatto una sponda a sinestra.
The interesting words here are take off and landing both of which refer to an action [verbs are action] affecting only the subject itself hence taking essere in the past tense. These verbs are intransitive. An intransitive verb is a verb that does not take a direct object.
Transitive verbs use avere which goes with verbs that have an object. As in I hit the ball, subject Myself, action hitting, object the ball. A transitive verb because the subject is not moving and the object is being affected.
Sometimes the subject is not visible in the sentence but it is implied. An object, the plane, is needed to be able to fly in the sky. hence the past uses avere not essere.
Now a terra is a way of saying “to ground or earth” in Italian . In this case going to ground has changed into a verb “to land” as in to land. Atterrare. Atterro I land
da collo means from the neck or from the hill and was also an old english term for beheading. As a verb in Italian it means both to take off from the ground or to take off a head. Decollere. Decollo I take off.
I hope this small example helps you progress in leaps and bounds. or “a passi da gigante.” In giant steps.