Memories are made of this.

This is a talk on the science and subject of memory.

One definition of memory is the ability to restore a past thought or action or process..

There are different types of memory, Genetic, chemical, geological,physical,computer and brain are just some types.

A digression Show two tabletops of 8 objects and tell a story about each of the objects on one table -test at end of meeting.

Memory does not need a brain of the sort we are used to thinking of when we think of a brain. Human memory arises from the working of a brain which has evolved over 2 billion years. Memory for life forms arises out of necessity. It would be perfectly valid for a life form to exist which had no brain or programming but just rolled around eating up everything in sight and dying when it wandered into a bigger one or rolled off an edge.

Being self reproducing is enhanced by having a routine which enhances the ability to find resources fro renewal and being able to avoid or overcome dangers.At a cellular level this meant adapting sensors for the environment. touch, taste hearing sight and smell.
Having ways to react through movement,  rolling sliding swimming propulsion; Disguise, Defence, cell walls spikes poison shells and means for attack teeth claws horns poison, electricity etc.

Plus a way to combine the the two.
Senses and action linked by thought. Thought requiring memory to work most effectively.

It might be possible to have such mechanisms without memory. Many actions of life forms still use process which in themselves depend on the vagaries of chance, consider baby turtles, coral spores and pollen for instance. Millions of life forms but only a few able to survive.

But having a memory of the previous interaction helps both future hunting/harvesting and avoiding dangers. Memory originated at a cellular level. The cells lay down rules for action from their RNA/DNA   and enforce them through a value adding system.

This is either pleasure or pain. The underlying drive is need, necessity food and safetyand reproduction. This is enhanced by a system of subneeds. avoidance of pain, inquisitiveness fear anger  which at our level manifest as emotions.And emotions provide the motivation for thoughts and actions. Memories affect our emotions which in turn drive us to think .

Returning to memory. It is the ability to recall past events thoughts and emotions plus to do   tasks, both repetitive like breathing and eating.

Having memories is consciously or unconsciously using the brain to rerun thoughts through the brain.

Hence one can have both real and virtual memories and even memories that are imaginery.

Memory

From what we have said several things drive the ability of a person to use their memory and in trying to use it effectively. One of course is the size and the other the ability of the “chip” Having a large register is impressive, It shows a good correlation between awareness, attentiveness and storage and recall. But more important is how the brain uses the memory and in this regard some people are born with sharper state of the market working components. Hence they can recall  and think better than other people. Most of us fall in the normal range. We can all read write and recall with moderate ease. This ability does reduce as we get older and marked failings in some people leads to Demerntia.

Memory training.

This is very simple but difficult to do. We all have areas in which our recall is not as good as it could be. Names of people. Car keys and wallets for men, mobile phones and purses for women. The whereabouts of food items in the Kitchen and Fridge. Where the bills are, the clothes are and lastly the password combinations.

To improve one’s memory the steps are to recognise that you really want to improve it enough to take the steps to do so. Just like losing weight.Developing the desire or need to do it.
Next is application. actively improving the memory. It can be done without desire but is much weaker in that case. Here is where the Concentration comes in. Being more alert.

At two steps. One in recognising an alert situation,e.g.  being introduced to new people and learning their names.

People who do not remember names do so for a variety of reasons. Shyness, Diffidence, not wanting to really expand their contact horizon, fear of embarrassment, sight and hearing problems. In fact they actively work unconsciously at forgetting names. How else to explain that their memory works extremely well elsewhere? This blindness or amaurosis needs work at both the psychological level and at the physical level.

MTwo by making it a pleasure great, new people to meet. Then using standard memory tips. Focusing, Listening carefully to their names, repeating their names back to them at the time of introduction and on leaving. Looking at them for distinguishing signs. Shoes glasses hair colour cut and age for instance. If possible [in this day of mobile phones writing it down and send a message to yourself.]

Putting the person into a story line to yourselves with something unusual particular to their names . And, if you have the spare time, recalling and repeating the names.
Will it work? Only with lots of practice and a desire to make it work. Human nature is not changed because of one little gaggle of memory tips.

That is the simple answer to developing memory.

Needing to do it
Wanting to do it
Recognising situations
Focusing and concentrationg,
Hearing and Observing
Repitition
Association
Recall.
Writing it down.

Now writing it down can be difficult  so an advanced memory technique is to write it down in your brain,, Tied in to association techniques. I have done one of these for our Italian classes, No one is currently using it but that might change after this talk. This technique is not unique and anyone who is very intersted can do further reading of a young man calle Oddjob Bjorn.

You have to imagine a place you already know and can easily recall. For most this would be the family home or childhood home, others the office, others for the shoppers amongst us the city of Shepparton and its shops houses or churches pubs and streets.

You put the first person introduced into the first room in your house. You make up a story with some aspect of their name.

Smith, A bulky navvy working at a fiery forge greets his long lost Brother/sister, John who has morphed into a replica of long John Silver with hook for hand , parrot on shoulder and eye patch. He takes your next introductee, Sue Jones into the next room where a whale [Jonah] is floating in the bath tub with the little figure in the whales mouth is yelling. I want a lawyer, I want to sue. etc

Note the more ridiculous the image, the better it will stick especially if you make some stock ones up yourself. When you make these images add the details to the character. Red socks? Have the pirate with one red sock pulled down.Long black hair a vest coat of the same colour as Mr Smith’s shirt.

1 rooms is adequate for

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

homework 8/5/2019

A SANDSTORM BROUGHT NIGHTTIME INTO A CITY.
Una tempesta di sabbia ha portata la notte in citta.
I saw this story on La Republica and thought how this image has helped me learn the word for sand.
Ho visto questa storia in[su] La Republica e ho pensato come questa vista [immagine] ha aiutatomi  a imparare la parola per la sabbia.
Sand bucket   secchio di sabbia.
Sand shovel      pala di sabbia,  Sand Spade Vanga di sabbia.
Sand at the beach on Saturday   sabbia in spiaggia il sabato.
Sand castle   
castello di sabbia
I built a sand castle 
Ho costruito un castello di sabbia, probably Ho fatto is easier
Sandman  omino del sonno
onde che si infrangono sulle dune in spiaggia
Beach umbrella ombrellone da spiaggia

 

 

Q and A Italian style

This is a follow up to a talk I gave on Italian a few years ago with a new take on asking questions and the responses one should give.

Questo è il seguito di un discorso che ho tenuto sull'italiano alcuni anni fa con una nuova interpretazione 
delle domande e delle risposte che dovresti dare.

Italian and English can both pose a question depending on the way one makes a statement.
Hence, "I am going home"?  or "vado a casa"? depends on intonation.
Italian differs from English from in that a sentence can be both a question and an answer at the same time,
but English allows you to change the order of the words to make it obvious a question is being asked 
by changing the order of the words.
Hence Am I going home, verb first, must be a question.

In both languages there are also words that make it obvious a question [domanda] is being asked
 and a response [risponsa] is needed.
In entrambe le lingue ci sono anche parole che rendono ovvia una domanda [domanda] viene chiesto
 e una risposta [risposta] è necessaria.

In English these words are How ,When, Where, What, Who and Why.

How is the most interesting of these as it asks for an explanation of the question in quantitative and qualitative terms, How much and How many, How deep, wide, tall, broad and long. In other words it is a numerative question. How did it happen?

Where is much easier, a position in time and space.

Who is subjective and personal, applied to other people.

What is impersonal and broader, allowing non personal causes.

When is a time specification which further divides into past, present and future.

Why is a reflection on causation.

Which   is a question offering a choice of answer

In Inglese queste parole sono come, quando, dove, cosa, chi e perché.
Come è il più interessante di questi in quanto richiede una spiegazione della domanda in termini 
quantitativi e qualitativi, quanto e quanti, quanto profondo, ampio, alto, largo e lungo.
 In altre parole è una domanda numerativa. Come è successo? Come è appena?
Dove è molto più facile, una posizione nel tempo e nello spazio.
 Chi è soggettivo e personale, applicato ad altre persone.
 Quello che è impersonale e più ampio, permette cause non personali.
Quando è una specifica temporale che si divide ulteriormente in passato, presente e futuro.
Perche è una riflessione sulla causalità.

Enough of the heavy stuff. Reading through the above several times and once before every Thursday morning 
will help you to focus on the main reasons for learning other languages. 
Firstly to communicate with other people on their terms,
 something English speaking people have been very poor at doing.
Secondly to understand our own language better. The rules of languages are universal 
even if the way the words are put together differ. 
English and Italian both share a common root in Latin and learning Italian
helps to understand and give deeper meaning to our own language.
 
Exercises and discussion for today.

Come? How How much? Quanto? 
How often? Quanto spesso?
Come mai, How come. 
Come appena, Come successo? How did it happen?
Dové? Where is it. Is it here or there?
Use la palla as the object.
Discuss how many different places can something be in?
Up, down, in, out, before, behind, inside, outside, here, there, over here, over there,
hiding, in plain sight, under, over and more.
All these words we use in English every day and are essential.
Chi? Who? Chi e o Chi Sono?
Che? What? often used as che cosa [what thing] o che cose  but sometimes
the word cosa/cose substitutes itself for what. 
Quando?  When?  now , in the past or in the future?
quando ora, nel passato o nel futuro?
Perche?, Why? Sometimes Come mai means the same thing.
Why is also the same word as because in Italian which is confusing
Quale? Which? offers a choice, una scelta or a selection between answers

Pick two of the seven basic questions, and use them in two sentences.
Then ask the question to each of the people on either side of you in the group.
You should also do your own answers to the questions.
All answers should include a rephrasing of the original question. 
 































 

Vale Vic Carroll, giant of journalism

Andrew Clark
Andrew ClarkSenior Writer
Tributes have poured in for Vic Carroll, a legendary Australian newspaper editor and a significant influence on the emergence of the modern Australian economy, who died early on Tuesday morning in Sydney. He was 94.

Mr Carroll was editor and editor-in-chief of The Australian Financial Review and The National Times from 1964-75, and editor-in-chief of The Sydney Morning Herald from 1970-84.

Born in the north Queensland coastal city of Mackay, he moved from stockbroking to work in newspapers from the 1950s until the late 1980s. He had been a gunner in the Australian Army in Papua New Guinea and Borneo in World War Two.

Chris Anderson, who succeeded Carroll as editor-in chief of The Sydney Morning Herald in 1984, and is a former chief executive of Optus, described him as “the greatest editor Australia has ever had”.

According to Greg Hywood, a former managing director of Fairfax Media (since taken over by Nine), Carroll was “the Godfather of modern Australian journalism”.

“The greatest editor Australia has ever had”. Vic Carroll was described as a great teacher, an original thinker and the person who led the Financial Review to explore the development of the national economy and Australia’s relations with the world. Supplied

Trevor Kennedy, a Carroll protégé who was the foundation editor of the (now defunct) National Times, was editor of The Bulletin magazine, and later managing director of Kerry Packer’s Australian Consolidated Press, described him as the “most innovative editor” in Australia since World War Two.

In a joint statement, Michael Stutchbury, editor-in-chief of the Financial Review, and Paul Bailey, the paper’s editor, said Carroll’s Financial Review was a “confident and substantial” newspaper “but also irreverent in an Australian larrikin sense”.

“Vic Carroll remains the foundation stone of The Australian Financial Review as Australia’s first national newspaper,” the two said.

He “recognised that the nation’s business publication had to cast its gaze beyond dusty and fusty financial scribbling to be about the development of the national economy and hence the nation itself and its relations with the world”.

“Gathering a rat pack of pioneering journalists such as Max Walsh, Peter Robinson, Max Suich and Trevor Sykes, the Financial Review built the case to force business to compete freely in the global economy, rather than be shielded behind an anti-import wall.

“Just as it changed Australia for the better, Carroll’s foundation has helped the Financial Review remain upright through the internet-era opening up of the media market.

“By remaining true to the sense of purpose handed down to the following generations of editors, the Financial Review continues to commercially prosper by focusing on the economic prosperity of the nation.”

According to Chris Anderson, Carroll “understood newspapers and he dragged Australia into the modern world. He used to say ‘follow the money and you’ll find out what is happening’. He had a mind like a steel trap.

“I loved him dearly.”

For Trevor Kennedy, Carroll was “a great teacher” and “a very original thinker. He even recruited people from the letters pages like John Edwards” who worked as a journalist on the Financial Review, has been a banking economist, adviser to former Labor Prime Minister and Treasurer Paul Keating, an author, and a Reserve Bank Board member.

Staunch support

Carroll “was also among the first to honestly recognise women as equal in every respect in the business”, Mr Kennedy said.

Max Suich, who was editor of The National Times and chief editorial executive of the John Fairfax and Sons Media group, which published the Financial Review and The Sydney Morning Herald, recalled Carroll’s staunch support for the late Evan Whitton’s hard-hitting analysis of Australia’s military involvement in the Vietnam War, and published around the time of North Vietnam’s victory in April 1975.

Publication of the highly critical series “led to suggestions from [Fairfax boss] Rupert Henderson and [company chairman] Sir Warwick Fairfax that Vic, Evan Whitton and the editor (me) be sacked”, Suich said

However, the company’s circulation department “produced a bullish estimate of near-record sales of the issue with the first part of the series. I never inquired whether the estimate proved to be correct. Nor did Vic”.

“He admonished with silence and rarely offered praise. When editor of The National Times I once complained that a story idea had failed. ‘It should have worked. It was a good idea,’ I said. ‘Good ideas work,’ he pointed out.

“When invited to be a member of the Australian Journalism Hall of Fame, he said: ‘I’m not much interested in fame.’ Carroll was “rightly” included, despite his lack of interest, Mr Suich said.

Mr Hywood, who is also a former editor-in-chief of the Financial Review and the Herald, said Carroll “fought for the editorial independence that the profession now takes for granted. Australians enjoy the benefits of his legacy every day”.

Italian unravelled

Italian is a romantic language and a complete language in that it has been refined over the last 2 thousand years from its predecessor , Latin, and is not easily prone to change. German and French are the same. English is a developing language and is both changing and complex. So in learning Italian one has to simplify many English expressions into one.  English has mixed in Gaelic, Latin and German/Dutch components from various occupations, both military and religious and is still able to accommodate new words from it’s Commonwealth and colonial times.

The theme today is to help understand the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs which is important for the use of verbs in the past tense.

Also to throw a light on how languages are made up and insight into the words used.
This came about as I was trying to describe a trip overseas on an aeroplane.
I went abroad on an aeroplane. I flew in the sky.
Sono andato all éstero su un aero. Ho voluto nel cielo.
The plane took off and landed several times.
L’aero e decollato ed e atterrato più volte?
The plane did a loop the loop and made a bank to the left.
L’aero ha fatto il giro dell’anello e ha fatto una sponda a sinestra.

The interesting words here  are take off and landing both of which refer to an action [verbs are action] affecting only the subject itself hence taking essere in the past tense. These verbs are intransitive. An intransitive verb is a verb that does not take a direct object.

Transitive verbs use avere which goes with verbs that have an object. As in I hit the ball, subject Myself, action hitting, object the ball. A transitive verb because the subject is not moving and the object is being affected.

Sometimes the subject is not visible in the sentence but it is implied. An object, the plane, is needed to be able to fly in the sky. hence the past uses avere not essere.

Now a terra is a way of saying “to ground or earth” in Italian . In this case going to ground has changed into a verb “to land” as in to land.   Atterrare. Atterro I land

da collo means from the neck or from the hill and was also an old english term for beheading.  As a verb in Italian it means both to take off from the ground or to take off a head.   Decollere. Decollo I take off.

I hope this small example helps you progress in leaps and bounds. or “a passi da gigante.”  In giant steps.

 

 

 

 

ice and maths

Ice.

Arctic ice. Melting away at an incredible rate or just a fiction.

Satellite records, used in the past by the IPCC from 1973 but now only shown from 1979 show a rapidly decreasing ice pack with occasional large drops and some smaller large gains.

What should the actual volume be in a world with a an average annual global temperature of say14.8 C. How much different would it have been 168 years ago with an average temp of 14 C How much should have melted in in that time. How much should it be melting per year?

Now the gist of the problem. How much variability per year and per 10 years and per 30 years is involved in the melting? A recent small event documented in the Arctic Sea Ice blogs [Neven] shows the problem acutely.

Those poor souls who like to watch yacht races or grass growing have nothing on ice watchers. This year there was an incredible fuss about whether we would have the lowest satellite extent on record [just failed]

1.1111     9.9999 = 11

o.000 actually moust be 0.0000 pos or neg

Natural variability in the Arctic Sea Ice Extent

This metric is often used as a metaphor for global warming as the Arctic Sea Ice has suffered several large falls in the last 4 decades on top of a general decline.

However analysis of events show an alarming under-assessment of the actual amount of natural variability  that can occur. This in turn throws doubt on how reliable the actual data patterns are.

The first domino was a rise of the total global sea ice to the highest level for that metric in December 2014 when it briefly, after 30 years of records and 30 years of global warming attained that record. At that time the Antarctic Ice had made a concerted rise of over 2 1/2 SD and in conjunction with a reasonable Arctic extent passed all satellite recorded levels for that time of year.

 The Antarctic then dropped to a 2 1/2 SD low in less than a year leading to a 3 year period of lower than normal extent which in combination with a big drop in extent of Arctic ice in 2016  led to a nearly 8 SD variation in less than 2 years.

That is an amazing amount if the SD are correct. It is something that should happen only once in 500 years and would indicated, if correct, warming on an unexpected scale.

Cue this year with the Arctic ice. Despite gloomy prognostications based on a low winter maximum extent, the ice, aided by an unexpectedly large volume for the extent refused to shrink and ended up the 6th lowest for the summer. It then failed to freeze up as expected, dropping to the 2nd lowest recovery extent for a few days before a massive rise from 2nd to 13th place over 3 weeks of freezing with many days over 100,000 sq K despite above average arctic air temperatures.

No sooner than it had done this it went into hibernation for 2 weeks dropping back to second lowest. A small recovery and then today one of the largest increases I have seen, vis.

 

(JAXA)] ASI Extent.December 16th, 2018:     11,752,725 km2, an increase of 263,728 km2.     2018 is now the 9th lowest on record.

My observation is this, with movement ranges mid melting or freezing varying between negative to 270,000 sq K in a single day, with ice volumes going from 2 1/2 plus SD to -5 in 2 years we do not have a handle on the year to year let alone decadal Arctic and global sea ice extents. The causes of melt and freeze are much more than simple air temperature or albedo, the currents and the temperatures they run at up to a year after they come from the tropics are very poorly understood.

My suggestion to both sides is that they are best not used to support the global warming theory as the variabilty is too great to make any satisfactory argument either way.

Yo yo ice, probability and natural variation..

While everyone has been focusing on CO2 and MGST a funny thing has been happening [at the forum] with the sea ice extents this last 8 months. Which should cause some scratching of heads and readjustments in the range we currently give to natural variability, in our assessment of the causes of sea ice growth and the reliability of Arctic and Antarctic temperature recording.

2018 had the lowest winter maximum extent of the last 40 years of the satellite record despite a promising early regrowth. As such it was expected that it could set a new low record for the minimum summer extent comparable to that of 2016. Arctic temperatures fluctuated much higher than average though possibly on a par with the last 4 years during the melting season. Robust claims were made but the ice stubbornly refused to play along. Arctic hurricanes and large sea swells were predicted to break it up very quickly but the ice stubbornly sat there melting very slowly on top of an even more unexpected  slow volume loss.

Consequently when the minimum arrived despite the heroic high temperatures it had gone from the lowest maximum extent to the 8th lowest minimum in September. Skeptics were crowing and then it refused to refreeze dropping rapidly to the second lowest recovering extent in October.

Then weirdness set in with pockets of quick refreeze in November in areas, Barents and Chukchi, which were sadly lacking the previous year. The East Siberian Sea, stalwart in not melting early but a long slow late melt refroze overnight [well not quite but rapidly]. The Hudson Bay started to freeze and November offered up an impossible freezing sequence of 16 days of way well above average freezing rates despite the high temperatures. From 2nd lowest to 13th or 14th lowest in that time. Unprecedented, alarming freezing. The trend went from below 2010 to equal to the 2010 average and then, almost, to the 2000 average in that 16 days. Why? Silence.

As suddenly as it did the freeze it stopped. 2 weeks of below par freezing brought it back to the 2nd lowest. Then two human comedies. NASA mucked up with a graph on incomplete data that showed an impossible regrowth day that took 3 days to correct. Finally the last week into December. Ice growth recouped again helped by a shuffle at the end of December where growth rates are reset by the algorithms they use which give a jump to reflect an offset that develops each month [Masking].

Currently we sit in 8th place with a steep rise occurring and looking likely to continue.

What is to like? A recovery of sorts from the warm weather and currents stimulated by the 2016 El Nino and the 2017 rewarmth has occurred as expected due to the warming lag in these events finally wearing off. Further melting rate increase might occur in 4 months when the 2018 baby El Nino currents again reach the Arctic. This recovery might be big enough to give all concerned pause for thought as to how we should be assessing Arctic variability.

What is not to like? When 16 days can give a fluctuation that should normally take 10 or more years to develop without due cause [unpredicted, unprecedented] The problem is not with the fluctuations but the concept of how much natural variation is actually capable of occurring. These results strongly suggest that variability in the Arctic is much greater than the trends of the last 40 years predict.

The take home message is good for both sides. The last 10 years of data show a slowdown or pause in melting which might be the bottom of a cycle that is going to turn upwards if we choose to believe in 60 yar cycles. For warmists the fact that such large fluctuations can exist [independent of CO2 and surface temperatures] means there is also an outside chance of further large downward fluctuations.

JAXA ARCTIC EXTENT 6,731,603 km2?October 24, 2018?- Extent is lowest in the satellite record- Extent increase at 156 k is about 55 k ABOVE the average (2008-2017) on this day,
 JAXA ARCTIC EXTENT 6,933,069 km2?October 25, 2018?- Extent is 2nd lowest in the satellite record,
– Extent increase at 201 k is about 110 k ABOVE the average (2008-2017) on this
JAXA ARCTIC EXTENT 7,182,053 km2?October 26, 2018?- Extent is 3rd lowest in the satellite record,
Extent increase at 249 k is nearly 160 k ABOVE the average (2008-2017) on this day,
JAXA ARCTIC EXTENT 8,624,638 km2?November 5, 2018?- Extent is 4th lowest in the satellite record,
JAXA ARCTIC EXTENT 9,278,237 km2?November 14, 2018?– Extent is 6th lowest in the satellite record,
JAXA ARCTIC EXTENT 10,272,807 km2?November 22, 2018?– Extent is 13th lowest in the satellite record.
JAXA ARCTIC EXTENT 11,197,247 km2?December 11, 2018?– Extent is 2nd lowest
 (JAXA)] ASI Extent. December 16th, 2018:   [The error]
     11,752,725 km2, an increase of 263,728 km2.       2018 is now the 9th lowest on record.
JAXA ARCTIC EXTENT 11,752,393 km2?December 22, 2018? – Extent is 4th lowest
JAXA ARCTIC EXTENT 11,871,945 km2?December 28, 2018? – Extent is 2nd lowest JAXA ARCTIC EXTENT 12,590,152 km2?January 4, 2019  – Extent is 8th lowest 

:o

 

::)

 

 

theme

Write it down An idea for a play with multiple scenes featuring flashbacks to people in a life and their effects on the future.

Theme forgotten by me but along the lines of redemption  effect on current life theme will not come why? was very good arrrgh.

 

Verbs in time and space

Sempre farlo. Always do this. Always do this?

There is one dimension of time and three dimensions of space.
Cé un dimensione di tempo e tre dimensioni di spazio.

The use of verbs is fundamental to speaking Italian but there are major differences in meaning and idiom and style which can only be built up slowly.

All language can be thought of as a composition of three units which form a sentence which is either a question [demand] or an answer [statement]. The units are a subject an object and a link or verb.The rest is descriptive verbiage to modify any or all of the three.

Now in English the language differentiates between a question and an answer by adding the words do [must be] or could [should could be should be] or possibly or want or need how much. what amount when, why, where, who, which and how. A second way is to turn the staement inside out putting the verb in front of the person. Not to mention Well… [tag question]!     An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how. They are sometimes called wh-words, because in English most of them start with wh-

A particular type of interrogative word is the interrogative particle, which serves to convert a statement into a yes–no question, without having any other meaning. est-ce que in French,  (The English word whether has a similar function but only in indirect questions; and Multicultural London English may use “innit”,  [ I ask whether/ if ] Ask itself.

While these words exist and may be used in Italian,  most statements as said and written can be either a question or an answer. Which is not the case in English. The Italians differentiate by context and intonation, an unwritten emphasis on the loudness of the syllables. A louder personal prefix is more likely to be a question whereas an emphasis on the verb makes it a statement.
When wishing to form a question the Italians otherwise use the 4 modal verbs to want to to need to to be able to and to know how to.

What Is a Question?  This question may seem obvious (clear), but it’s good to review. There are generally three types of sentences: statements, commands and questions. Statements are sentences that state (tell) information:Commands are sentences that give orders (tell people to do actions). This is also sometimes called the “imperative.”Questions are sentences that ask for information. [pinched]  Careful: Exception! If the main verb of the sentence is some form of “to be,” it goes in the auxiliary position. Here are a few examples: Are you ready?

ttt